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Efficiency Measures in the Agricultural Sector opens with detailed descriptions of An Application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in Azores Dairy Farms.
Table of contents

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IoT Applications in Agriculture - 4 Best Benefits of IoT in Agriculture - DataFlair

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Efficiency Measures in the Agricultural Sector

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2. What are the IoT Applications in Agriculture?

Strong complementarity between public and private investment is also necessary to sustain agricultural growth, with governments investing in sectors having an important public good element such as research, extension, and infrastructure - particularly roads, education, norms and standards. The least developed countries need to undertake policies and measures aimed at strengthening the ability of their institutions to operate efficiently.

Weaknesses in the structure and capacities of rural and related institutions are one reason why economic policy reforms have failed to achieve the desired increase in aggregate agricultural output in many African LDCs. Governments must diagnose these requirements and determine the respective roles of the public and private sector and how the two complement each other.

Political, legal and economic institutions play a major role in determining both macro-economic and sectoral policies. Improved formulation and implementation of these policies often requires wide-ranging institutional changes.

Agriculture

For the agricultural sector growth requires the development of appropriate institutional arrangements for overcoming market constraints for agricultural products for example, specific contractual arrangements between farmers and traders. In the context of declining real world prices for the main agricultural commodities exported by LDCs, improved mechanisms for the transmission of international prices to domestic producers is of key importance. The involvement of an increasingly competitive private sector in these various commodity markets has driven down margins and allowed greater returns to producers.

The experience of countries with a similar agroecological base to that of LDCs - maize in Zimbabwe, rice in Vietnam, horticulture in Kenya, cocoa in Cote d'Ivoire and cotton and rice in Mali- demonstrates that there is much potential for raising agricultural productivity in LDCs also. These limited but promising areas of success in other countries can serve as a model for LDCs. Research has shown that not only the domestic terms of trade for agriculture, but also the content of capital input are key determinants of agricultural productivity and competitiveness. Important in this respect are rural infrastructure development; strengthening research and extension services; enhancing human capital in rural areas through health, education, and access to productive resources; and preserving the capacity of the natural resource and environment to sustain productivity achievements.

About this book

While the main focus of the current reforms in LDCs has been on macroeconomic and price policies, it is the weaknesses in this area and require substantial increases in investment in agriculture, by both the public and the private sectors, if they are to be overcome. Sequential removal of constraints is critical.

Sustained growth is only possible if new constraints are alleviated by further reforms. There also needs to be a dynamic ability for technology, resource use, institutions, knowledge and markets to be adapted to deal with successive bottlenecks or constraints affecting particular commodity systems, to respond to problems of natural resource exhaustion or degradation, and to diversify to take advantage of new opportunities.

Policy makers need to give renewed emphasis to understanding and promoting processes supportive of agricultural growth and increased emphasis is needed on agricultural research to address the problems facing farmers in non-green revolution areas. There are strong arguments for seeking more nuanced role for the State in promoting efficient and effective institutional arrangements to support farmers' access to seasonal finance and to input and output markets.