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Evoked potentials are potentials that are derived from the peripheral or central nervous system. They are time locked with an external stimulus and can be.
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Average evoked potentials--clinical applications of short latency responses.

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The N1-P2 Cortical Auditory Evoked Potential in Threshold Estimation

Klempner , B. Styrt , et al. Catalysis in Petrochemical Processes by M. Filters of 1 Hz to 15 Hz provide the best signal to noise compromise when the response is used to estimate threshold; this is a much narrower bandwidth than one would use for research where waveform fidelity is important. A rate above 0. A repetition rate of 0. However, this means that the first few stimuli in an averaging sequence preceded by silence will evoke larger responses and as the averaging run continues the response amplitude will decline. Very long averaging runs are therefore counterproductive. At each stimulus level, typically two or three waveforms with 10 - 20 sweeps each are sufficient to identify a response at supra-threshold stimulus levels but 20 - 40 sweeps per waveform are usually needed close to threshold.

Recording more than a single waveform allows us to assess response repeatability by visual inspection and by computer correlation and residual noise as the average gap between replicates. For this process to be valid, the response should be stationary, i.

But we know that this response declines with time during an averaging run and can vary with the patient's level of arousal. These effects can be minimized in dedicated software by acquiring the 2 or 3 replicates pseudo-simultaneously or, less ideally, by manually ensuring that a silent period of at least 10 seconds separates the averaging runs. A recording epoch time base of ms to ms is usual, the latter allowing some pre-stimulus activity to be recorded as an indication of background non-response electrical activity.

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Unlike shorter latency responses which place high demands on muscle relaxation, CAEP subjects simply need to remain awake and reasonably alert during testing. This can readily be achieved by asking them to sit upright not reclined in a chair and browse a magazine or watch a silent video. Eye closure is to be avoided since this is associated with EEG alpha 8 - 12 Hz activity which can contaminate the recording as well as increased drowsiness. Asking the subject to listen to or count the stimuli is unnecessary.

Response Identification Although some objective assessment tools such as measurement of signal-to-noise ratio and cross-correlation are available on most evoked potential equipment, N1-P2 response identification like ABR response identification is usually based on subjective judgment by the audiologist and is therefore vulnerable to operator error or bias. The stimulus was a cycle plateau tone burst at 2 kHz with 20 cycle linear rise and fall times.