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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Samantha L. Elliott is an Associate Professor of Biology at Perspectives on Research Integrity 1st Edition, Kindle Edition.
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The term responsible conduct of research — frequently referred to by its acronym RCR— emerged during this same period as research funders and academic research institutions endeavored to distinguish research misconduct from the processes and activities that constituted good scientific practice IOM, ; NIH, ; NRC, The amendment required the mandatory instruction in RCR that was part of all institutional research training grants to add instruction on professional ethics and regulatory standards NIH, Initially the content of such instruction was not defined.

Formal textbooks and other curricular materials developed both before and in response to the training grant mandate covered a wide array of issues that grew both broader and more concrete over time Heitman and Bulger, Over the past two decades, however, instruction in responsible conduct of research has increasingly focused on the elements of research practice and the ethical values and professional norms of science.

Independence of research

This policy was short lived, due largely to the anticipated costs of providing such an extensive educational activity across the federally funded research enterprise Steneck and Bulger, These nine core areas were:. Although ORI suspended the policy in , its nine core instructional areas provided a common framework for the development of practice standards and research policy, as well as a wide range of educational resources. In , both NIH and the U. National Science Foundation updated their requirements for instruction in responsible conduct of research, enlarging, reconfiguring, and reprioritizing the core areas and including, for the first time, formal attention to the practices related to biosafety and research with dual use potential NIH, ; NSF, Since the early s, several multinational professional organizations have worked to elaborate practice standards and ethical norms for worldwide adoption, particularly in the life sciences.

At that time, a variety of member organizations had developed country-specific policies on research misconduct and guidelines on responsible research, but these standards were not well integrated. ESF called for member organizations to develop both national and European-level codes of good scientific practice and to pursue the harmonization of national standards.

Seeking Solutions in Research Integrity

A related expert group from the European Commission EC recommended that the Commission take the lead in developing European standards, harmonizing definitions and principles, and investigate emerging issues in transnational research. The Code identified eight principles for all researchers, research organizations, universities and funders to observe:.

On a wider, global level, IAP—The Global Network of Science Academies formerly the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues , an organization of over national academies of science, has also been a leader in promoting research integrity and responsible conduct of research. The report concludes that:. For further information about IAC, see www.

Emerging ethical questions and standards of practice in biosafety, biosecurity, and research with dual use potential fit readily into the broad spectrum of issues addressed in RCR education. For example, RCR education in the life sciences can readily address the following topics:.

In , the U.


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NSABB later outlined core professional responsibilities and general research responsibilities that could be incorporated into a code of conduct related to dual use research in the life sciences NSABB, Most such codes incorporate a provision against doing harm through research, which would prompt reflection on research integrity as well as dual use potential. As noted in Chapter 1 , a strong theme for education and outreach related to dual use issues is to treat the topic within a broader framework of responsible conduct of research.

Examples of how this framing works in practice may be.

Research Integrity: International Perspectives | SpringerLink

In cooperation with other international scientific organizations, the group organized the 1 st and 2 nd International Forums on Biosecurity in and , respectively; education and codes of conduct were discussed in both meetings. Spurred on by new discoveries and rapid technological advances, the capacity for life science research is expanding across the globe—and with it comes concerns about the unintended impacts of research on the physical and biological environment, human well-being, or the deliberate misuse of knowledge, tools, and techniques to cause harm.

This report describes efforts to address dual use issues by developing institutes around the world that will help life sciences faculty learn to teach about the responsible conduct of science. Based on the successful National Academies Summer Institute for Undergraduate Biology Education and on previous NRC reports on effective methods for teaching about dual use issues, the report's authoring committee designed a general framework for the faculty institutes and chose the Middle East-North Africa MENA region to test a prototype faculty institute.

In September , the first Institute was held in Aqaba, Jordan, bringing together 28 participants from Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, and Yemen to engage with effective, evidence-based teaching methods, develop curricular materials for use in their own classrooms, and become community leaders on dual use and related topics.


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Abbott, A. Image search triggers Italian police probe. Nature, , CrossRef Google Scholar. Alberts, B. Rescuing U. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 16 , — Alvarez-Buylla, A.

Promoting research integrity and avoiding misconduct - perspectives on and from Africa

Obituary: Yoshiki Sasai — Ariely, D. The honest truth about dishonesty: How we lie to everyone—especially ourselves. New York: Harper.

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Google Scholar. Chinese Academy of Sciences. Towards excellence in science. Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences , 28 3. The European code of conduct for research integrity. Global Research Council. Statement of principles for research integrity. Responsible conduct in the global research enterprise: A policy report. Ioannidis, J. Increasing value and reducing waste in research design, conduct, and analysis. The Lancet, , — Mayer, T.

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Promoting research integrity in a global environment. Singapore, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. Australian code for responsible conduct of research.


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National Institutes of Health. Update on the requirement for instruction in the responsible conduct of research. National Science Foundation.